# 嵌入式 Julia¶

## 高级嵌入¶

#include <julia.h>

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
jl_init(NULL);
JL_SET_STACK_BASE;

jl_eval_string("print(sqrt(2.0))");

return 0;
}




The second statement initializes Julia’s task scheduling system. This statement must appear in a function that will not return as long as calls into Julia will be made (main works fine). Strictly speaking, this statement is optional, but operations that switch tasks will cause problems if it is omitted.

The third statement in the test program evaluates a Julia statement using a call to jl_eval_string.

## 类型转换¶

Real applications will not just need to execute expressions, but also return their values to the host program. jl_eval_string returns a jl_value_t*, which is a pointer to a heap-allocated Julia object. Storing simple data types like Float64 in this way is called boxing, and extracting the stored primitive data is called unboxing. Our improved sample program that calculates the square root of 2 in Julia and reads back the result in C looks as follows:

jl_value_t *ret = jl_eval_string("sqrt(2.0)");

if (jl_is_float64(ret)) {
double ret_unboxed = jl_unbox_float64(ret);
printf("sqrt(2.0) in C: %e \n", ret_unboxed);
}


In order to check whether ret is of a specific Julia type, we can use the jl_is_... functions. By typing typeof(sqrt(2.0)) into the Julia shell we can see that the return type is Float64 (double in C). To convert the boxed Julia value into a C double the jl_unbox_float64 function is used in the above code snippet.

Corresponding jl_box_... functions are used to convert the other way:

jl_value_t *a = jl_box_float64(3.0);
jl_value_t *b = jl_box_float32(3.0f);
jl_value_t *c = jl_box_int32(3);


As we will see next, boxing is required to call Julia functions with specific arguments.

## 调用 Julia 的函数¶

While jl_eval_string allows C to obtain the result of a Julia expression, it does not allow passing arguments computed in C to Julia. For this you will need to invoke Julia functions directly, using jl_call:

jl_function_t *func = jl_get_function(jl_base_module, "sqrt");
jl_value_t *argument = jl_box_float64(2.0);
jl_value_t *ret = jl_call1(func, argument);


In the first step, a handle to the Julia function sqrt is retrieved by calling jl_get_function. The first argument passed to jl_get_function is a pointer to the Base module in which sqrt is defined. Then, the double value is boxed using jl_box_float64. Finally, in the last step, the function is called using jl_call1. jl_call0, jl_call2, and jl_call3 functions also exist, to conveniently handle different numbers of arguments. To pass more arguments, use jl_call:

jl_value_t *jl_call(jl_function_t *f, jl_value_t **args, int32_t nargs)


Its second argument args is an array of jl_value_t* arguments and nargs is the number of arguments.

## 内存管理¶

..As we have seen, Julia objects are represented in C as pointers. This raises the question of who is responsible for freeing these objects.: 正如我们看到的，Julia 的对象在 C 中是以指针形式呈现的。而这也就给出了一个问题：由谁来负责释放这些对象对应的内存呢？

..Typically, Julia objects are freed by a garbage collector (GC), but the GC does not automatically know that we are holding a reference to a Julia value from C. This means the GC can free objects out from under you, rendering pointers invalid.: 一般情况下，Julia 的对象由垃圾回收机制来释放，但垃圾回收机制并不能自动获知我们正在 C 中使用 Julia 对象的引用。这意味着垃圾回收机制可能会释放我们正在使用的对象，造成该指针失效。

The GC can only run when Julia objects are allocated. Calls like jl_box_float64 perform allocation, and allocation might also happen at any point in running Julia code. However, it is generally safe to use pointers in between jl_... calls. But in order to make sure that values can survive jl_... calls, we have to tell Julia that we hold a reference to a Julia value. This can be done using the JL_GC_PUSH macros:

jl_value_t *ret = jl_eval_string("sqrt(2.0)");
JL_GC_PUSH1(&ret);
// Do something with ret
JL_GC_POP();


The JL_GC_POP call releases the references established by the previous JL_GC_PUSH. Note that JL_GC_PUSH is working on the stack, so it must be exactly paired with a JL_GC_POP before the stack frame is destroyed.

Several Julia values can be pushed at once using the JL_GC_PUSH2 , JL_GC_PUSH3 , and JL_GC_PUSH4 macros. To push an array of Julia values one can use the JL_GC_PUSHARGS macro, which can be used as follows:

jl_value_t **args;
JL_GC_PUSHARGS(args, 2); // args can now hold 2 jl_value_t* objects
args[0] = some_value;
args[1] = some_other_value;
// Do something with args (e.g. call jl_... functions)
JL_GC_POP();


### 控制垃圾回收¶

..There are some functions to control the GC. In normal use cases, these should not be necessary.: 有一些函数可以帮助控制垃圾回收。在一般情况下，它们都不需要被用到。

 void jl_gc_collect() Force a GC run void jl_gc_disable() Disable the GC void jl_gc_enable() Enable the GC

## 处理数组¶

Julia and C can share array data without copying. The next example will show how this works.

Julia arrays are represented in C by the datatype jl_array_t*. Basically, jl_array_t is a struct that contains:

• A pointer to the data block
• Information about the sizes of the array

To keep things simple, we start with a 1D array. Creating an array containing Float64 elements of length 10 is done by:

jl_value_t* array_type = jl_apply_array_type(jl_float64_type, 1);
jl_array_t* x          = jl_alloc_array_1d(array_type, 10);


Alternatively, if you have already allocated the array you can generate a thin wrapper around its data:

double *existingArray = (double*)malloc(sizeof(double)*10);
jl_array_t *x = jl_ptr_to_array_1d(array_type, existingArray, 10, 0);


The last argument is a boolean indicating whether Julia should take ownership of the data. If this argument is non-zero, the GC will call free on the data pointer when the array is no longer referenced.

In order to access the data of x, we can use jl_array_data:

double *xData = (double*)jl_array_data(x);


Now we can fill the array:

for(size_t i=0; i<jl_array_len(x); i++)
xData[i] = i;


Now let us call a Julia function that performs an in-place operation on x:

jl_function_t *func  = jl_get_function(jl_base_module, "reverse!");
jl_call1(func, (jl_value_t*)x);


By printing the array, one can verify that the elements of x are now reversed.

### 访问返回的数组¶

If a Julia function returns an array, the return value of jl_eval_string and jl_call can be cast to a jl_array_t*:

jl_function_t *func  = jl_get_function(jl_base_module, "reverse");
jl_array_t *y = (jl_array_t*)jl_call1(func, (jl_value_t*)x);


Now the content of y can be accessed as before using jl_array_data. As always, be sure to keep a reference to the array while it is in use.

### 高维数组¶

Julia’s multidimensional arrays are stored in memory in column-major order. Here is some code that creates a 2D array and accesses its properties:

// Create 2D array of float64 type
jl_value_t *array_type = jl_apply_array_type(jl_float64_type, 2);
jl_array_t *x  = jl_alloc_array_2d(array_type, 10, 5);

// Get array pointer
double *p = (double*)jl_array_data(x);
// Get number of dimensions
int ndims = jl_array_ndims(x);
// Get the size of the i-th dim
size_t size0 = jl_array_dim(x,0);
size_t size1 = jl_array_dim(x,1);

// Fill array with data
for(size_t i=0; i<size1; i++)
for(size_t j=0; j<size0; j++)
p[j + size0*i] = i + j;


Notice that while Julia arrays use 1-based indexing, the C API uses 0-based indexing (for example in calling jl_array_dim) in order to read as idiomatic C code.

## 异常¶

Julia code can throw exceptions. For example, consider:

jl_eval_string("this_function_does_not_exist()");


This call will appear to do nothing. However, it is possible to check whether an exception was thrown:

if (jl_exception_occurred())
printf("%s \n", jl_typeof_str(jl_exception_occurred()));


If you are using the Julia C API from a language that supports exceptions (e.g. Python, C#, C++), it makes sense to wrap each call into libjulia with a function that checks whether an exception was thrown, and then rethrows the exception in the host language.

### 抛出 Julia 异常¶

When writing Julia callable functions, it might be necessary to validate arguments and throw exceptions to indicate errors. A typical type check looks like:

if (!jl_is_float64(val)) {
jl_type_error(function_name, (jl_value_t*)jl_float64_type, val);
}


General exceptions can be raised using the funtions:

void jl_error(const char *str);
void jl_errorf(const char *fmt, ...);


jl_error takes a C string, and jl_errorf is called like printf:

jl_errorf("argument x = %d is too large", x);


where in this example x is assumed to be an integer.